Articles

gypsum block

Gypsum Block

Gypsum blocks use two electrodes placed into a small block of gypsum to measure soil water tension. Wires connected to the electrodes are connected to either a portable hand-held reader or a data logger. The amount of water in the ...
Read More
neutron probe

Neutron Probe

Neutron probes are another way to measure soil moisture content. A probe inserted in the ground emits low-level radiation in the form of neutrons. These collide with the hydrogen atoms contained in water, which is detected by the probe. The ...
Read More
calibration

Coaxial Impedance Dielectric Reflectometry

The Coaxial Impedance Dielectric Reflectometry (also referred to as “Ratiometric Coaxial Impedance Dielectric Reflectometry”) method of soil moisture measurement employs an oscillator to generate an electromagnetic signal that is propagated through the sensor by metal tines and into the soil. It ...
Read More
accuracy

Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT)

Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) is similar to TDR, however it measures the transmission, rather than reflection, of a pulse along a looped, or closed circuit, rod. TDT measures the time taken for an electromagnetic wave to propagate (travel) along a ...
Read More
Capacitance

Capacitance (Charge)

Capacitance determines the dielectric constant (Ka) by measuring the charge time of a capacitor, which uses soil as a dielectric medium. The charge time of the capacitor is a linear function of the dielectric permittivity of the soil. Capacitance sensors measure the dielectric constant of ...
Read More
electrical conductivity (EC)

Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)​

Sensors that use the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) are somewhat similar way to FDR probes, but the mechanics behind the measurement system are different. TDR sensors use parallel rods, acting as transmission lines. A voltage is applied to the rods ...
Read More
Capacitance

Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) / Capacitance (Frequency)

Capacitance can be measured from the change in frequency of a reflected radio wave or resonance frequency (Kelleners 2004). This method of measurement uses an oscillator to propagate an electromagnetic signal through a metal tine or other wave guide. The ...
Read More
McMaster University

McMaster Mesonet soil moisture dataset: Description and spatio-temporal variability analysis

This paper introduces and describes the hourly, high-resolution soil moisture dataset continuously recorded by the McMaster Mesonet located in the Hamilton-Halton Watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada. The McMaster Mesonet consists of a network of time domain reflectometer (TDR) probes collecting ...
Read More