Soil pH defines the relative acidity or alkalinity of the soil solution. The pH scale in natural systems ranges from 0 to 14. A pH value of 7.0 is neutral. Values below 7.0 are acid and those above 7.0 are alkaline, or basic. Many agricultural soils have a soil pH between 5.5 and 6.5.
Soil pH is a measurement of hydrogen ion (H+) activity, or effective concentration, in a soil and water solution. Soil pH is expressed in logarithmic terms, which means that each unit change in soil pH amounts to a tenfold change in acidity or alkalinity. For example, a soil with a pH of 6.0 has 10 times as much active H+ as one with a pH of 7.0.
The pH of a soil horizon is determined by the parent material from which the soil is formed, the chemical nature of the rain or other water entering the soil, land management practices, and the activities of organisms (plants, animals, and microorganisms) living in the soil. Soil pH is an indication of the soil’s chemistry and fertility. The activity of the chemical substances in the soil affects the pH levels. Different plants grow at different pH values. Farmers sometimes add materials to the soil to change its pH depending on the types of plants they want to grow. The pH of the soil also affects the pH of groundwater or nearby water bodies such as streams or